Parzival c. 1210=1225
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WOLFRAM VON ESCHENBACH

Parzival is a medieval romance by the knight-poet Wolfram von Eschenbach in Middle High German. The poem, commonly dated to the first quarter of the 13th century, centers on the Arthurian hero Parzival (Percival in English) and his long quest for the Holy Grail following his initial failure to achieve it.

Parzival begins with the knightly adventures of Parzival's father, Gahmuret, his marriage to Herzeloyde (Middle High German: herzeleide, "heart's sorrow"), and the birth of Parzival.
DATABASES
Parzival is a medieval romance by the knight-poet Wolfram von Eschenbach in Middle High German. The poem, commonly dated to the first quarter of the 13th century, centers on the Arthurian hero Parzival (Percival in English) and his long quest for the Holy Grail following his initial failure to achieve it.

Parzival begins with the knightly adventures of Parzival's father, Gahmuret, his marriage to Herzeloyde (Middle High German: herzeleide, "heart's sorrow"), and the birth of Parzival.
Parzival, epic poem, one of the masterpieces of the Middle Ages, written between 1200 and 1210 in Middle High German by Wolfram von Eschenbach. This 16-book, 25,000-line poem is in part a religious allegory describing Parzival’s painful journey from utter ignorance and naïveté to spiritual awareness. The poem introduced the theme of the Holy Grail into German literature, and it is considered to be the climax of medieval Arthurian tradition. It questions the ultimate value of an education based solely on the code of courtly honour, and it takes its hero beyond the feudal world of knights and lords to the threshold of a higher order.
The epic poem Parzival by Wolfram von Eschenbach (ca. 1170-1220) is one of the greatest works of medieval literature. The story centers on Parzival, son of Gamuret (also Gahmuret), who joins the quest for the Holy Grail and also gives a prominent place to his half-brother Feirefis (also Feirefiz), who is the son of an African queen and whose skin is both black and white. Wolfram uses the the tale to puncture the chivalric, knightly ideal while also providing incisive and witty commentary on contemporary society more generally. Its quality can be seen in its lasting influence, especially on nineteenth-century writers and composers, most notably Richard Wagner.
The text was written by the Middle High German poet and Minnesinger Wolfram von Eschenbach, who lived c. 1170 - c. 1220 or 1230.  [Minnesingers were poet-composers who thrived in the 12C to 14C and followed the model established by the troubadours and trouvères of France--they were succeeded by the Meistersingers.]  He lived at the court of Thuringia (c. 1202 - 1217). Parzival was written probably c. 1197 - 1209/1215. Wolfram was a knight, perhaps poor, and he spent "considerable time at the court of the Landgrave Hermann at the famous Wartburg [castle] near Erfurt" where he met the Minnesinger Walther von der Vogelweide. By legend Wolfram competed in the singing contest said to have been held at the Wartburg and immortalized in the Wagner opera Tannhäuser--though this book's introduction states that "in real life [Wolfram was] very little like the pious baritone who sings the aria to the Evening Star. Wolfram seems to state in the poem that he could not read, and that therefore this was an oral poem.
The story begins with the story of P's parents. His father, Gahmuret, as the younger son of the king of Anjou is left without inheritance and travels into the East to seek his fortune. He serves the Baruc, whom Wolfram imagines as a sort of pope and emperor of the Heathen World. He frees the black queen Belakane, Queen of Zazamanc, from her enemies, and marries her. But he sneaks away in the night (either because he isn't finding enough adventure in his married life, or because he wishes she were Christian), leaving her pregnant with Feirefiz, who turns out to be colored both black and white, like a magpie.
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