Nadir
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NADIR

The point of the celestial sphere that is directly opposite the zenith and vertically downward from the observer.

Nadir is part of the galaxy of scientific words that have come to us from Arabic, a language that has made important contributions in the vocabulary of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and chemistry. Nadir derives from an Arabic word meaning "opposite"—the opposite, that is, of the zenith, or the highest point of the celestial sphere, the one vertically above the observer. (The word zenith itself is a modification of another Arabic word that means "the way over one's head.") The English poet John Donne is first on record as having used nadir in the figurative sense of "lowest point" in a sermon he wrote in 1627.
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The point of the celestial sphere that is directly opposite the zenith and vertically downward from the observer. 

Nadir is part of the galaxy of scientific words that have come to us from Arabic, a language that has made important contributions in the vocabulary of mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and chemistry. Nadir derives from an Arabic word meaning "opposite"—the opposite, that is, of the zenith, or the highest point of the celestial sphere, the one vertically above the observer. (The word zenith itself is a modification of another Arabic word that means "the way over one's head.") The English poet John Donne is first on record as having used nadir in the figurative sense of "lowest point" in a sermon he wrote in 1627.
The winter solstice, the longest night of the year, falls on December 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and June 20 or 21 in the Southern. Since ancient times, people all over the world have recognized this important astronomical occurrence and celebrated the subsequent “return” of the Sun in a variety of different ways. Old solstice traditions have influenced holidays we celebrate now, such as Christmas and Hanukkah. Here are some solstice traditions both new and old to help light your way to longer days.
A new moon is when the surface of the moon facing Earth is pointing directly away from the Sun (see the image below). At this configuration no sunlight is reflecting off the surface of the Moon facing towards Earth. Incidentally if the moon happens to be aligned perfectly with the Sun a new moon will also coincide with a solar eclipse. 

The start of a new lunar month begins when the first light from the crescent moon is observed. As there is no sunlight reflecting towards Earth at the point of the new moon we have to wait until the moon has moved further 7 degrees on its orbit to make a sighting. Typically this occurs after it completes a further  of its orbit and is why sightings are not made until 11 – 15 hours after the true new moon.

Interestingly though there is enough sunlight reflecting off the surface of the Earth to illuminate the Moon, known as Earthshine.
Midnight is the transition time from one day to the next – the moment when the date changes, on the local official clock time for any particular jurisdiction. By clock time, midnight is the opposite of noon, differing from it by 12 hours.

Solar midnight, or dark night,[not verified in body] is the time opposite to solar noon, when the Sun is closest to the nadir, and the night is equidistant from dusk and dawn. Due to the advent of time zones, which regularize time across a range of meridians, and daylight saving time, solar midnight rarely coincides with 12 midnight on the clock. Solar midnight depends on longitude and time of the year rather than on time zone. In ancient Roman timekeeping, midnight was halfway between sunset and sunrise (i.e., solar midnight), varying according to the seasons.

In some Slavic languages, "midnight" has an additional geographic association with "north" (as "noon" does with "south"). Modern Polish, Belarusian, Ukrainian, and Serbian languages preserve this association with their words for "midnight" or "half-night" (północ, поўнач, північ, пoнoħ) also meaning "north."[1]
NADIR & THE GREEN KNIGHT

The daily, monthly and annual cycles of the sun and moon are all defined by the rise and fall of light. Midnight, new moon and the winter solstice are the nadirs while noon, full moon and summer solstice are the zeniths of celestial light. The waking, procreating and life cycles of plants, animals and humans are defined by cycles of waxing and waning vitality. These cycles are unavoidably aligned on an unconscious level, as is seen in our myths, metaphors and The Green Knight. As we see in the decapitation of Gawain and the Green Knight on the Winter Solstice Christmas New Year Yule with a waning crescent axe, the story is built around an alignment of nadirs.
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